Chemical elements
  Titanium
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Preparation
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Titanium Trifluoride
      Titanium Tetrafluoride
      Hydrofluotitanic acid
      Potassium Titanifluoride
      Sodium Titanifluoride
      Titanium Dichloride
      Titanium Trichloride
      Titanium Tetrachloride
      Titanic Chloride
      Titanium Oxychlorides
      Hydrochlorotitanic Acid
      Addition Compounds of Titanium Tetrachloride
      Titanium Tribromide Hexahydrate
      Titanium Tetrabromide
      Titanic Bromide
      Hydrobromotitanic Acid
      Titanium Chlorobromides
      Titanium Di-iodide
      Titanium Tri-iodide
      Titanium Tetra-iodide
      Titanic Iodide
      Titanium Monoxide
      
Titanium Sesquioxide
      Titanium Dioxide
      Titanic Oxide
      Titanic Hydroxides
      Metatitanic Acid
      Titanates
      Titanium Monosulphide
      Titanium Sesquisulphide
      Titanium Disulphide
      Titanium Sulphates
      Titanous Sulphate
      Titanium Sesquisulphate
      Complex Sulphates of Tervalent Titanium
      Normal Titanic Sulphate
      Potassium Titanisulphate
      Potassium and Ammonium Titanylsulphates
      Titanous Nitride
      Titanic Nitride
      Titanamide
      Titanium Nitrogen Halides
      Titaninitric Acid
      Titanium Phosphide
      Titaniphosphoric Acid
      Titanium Carbide
      Titanium Cyanonitride
      Titanium Thiocyanates
      Titanium Sesquioxalate
      Titanitartrates and Allied Salts
      Titanium Silicide
      Pertitanates

Titanium Tetrachloride, TiCl4






Titanium Tetrachloride, TiCl4. - Titanium and chlorine combine when heated together to 350° C., forming Titanium Tetrachloride, TiCl4. In place of the pure metal that containing carbon, or the carbide, may be employed. This chloride is also conveniently prepared, like non-metallic chlorides, by passing chlorine over a heated mixture of titanic oxide and carbon, as well as by leading the vapour of carbon tetrachloride or chloroform over the heated dioxide. Ferrotitanium may also be used as a source of the tetrachloride. Most of the iron is first removed by hydrochloric acid, and the residue is heated in a porcelain tube through which chlorine is passed. Ferric chloride condenses in the cooler parts of the tube, and titanic chloride is obtained by further cooling and then fractionated. In another process rutile is reduced by aluminium according to the Goldschmidt reaction, and the product heated in a current of chlorine; the crude titanic chloride thus obtained needs to be separated by fractional distillation from silicon tetrachloride, derived from the silica of the rutile.

Titanium tetrachloride is a colourless, mobile liquid of density 1.7604 at 0° C. and 1.5222 at its boiling-point. It boils at 136.4° C. under 760 mm. pressure (Thorpe), its critical temperature is 358° C., at low temperature it forms a solid mass which melts at -23° C. The vapour density was found by Dumas to be 6.836 (air = 1) or 197.4 (O = 16), theory requiring 190 in the latter case.

Titanium tetrachloride has a penetrating smell, and fumes excessively in moist air. With water it forms a series of oxychlorides: TiCl3OH, TiCl2(OH)2, TiCl(OH)3; with excess of water Ti(OH)4 is formed; nevertheless titanium tetrachloride dissolves in water with evolution of considerable heat, the hydrochloric acid formed simultaneously with the titanic hydroxide sufficing to redissolve the voluminous precipitate of Ti(OH)4 first formed. According to Thomsen the heat evolved by the solution of 1 molecule of TiCl4 in 1600 molecules of water at 17° C. is 57,870 calories. In its behaviour towards water titanium tetrachloride stands between the tetrachlorides of silicon and tin.

Sodium amalgam at ordinary temperature reduces the tetrachloride to dichloride, hydrogen at red heat reduces it to the trichloride.


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